Farming Magazine - June, 2009
Working Horses: Hints on Horse & Harness
|Photos by Vicki Schmidt.
|Something as simple as two teammates sharing a “hello”
is enough to tangle lines, bits and other equipment.
There’s an old
saying that the cheapest part about owning a horse is buying it. Once you start to shop for harness, collars and implements, and
add to those the annual cost of owning your draft, you might well agree. It
helps to realize that all these items, and sometimes the horse included,
often last a lifetime or more if well-maintained.
As with choosing your draft, asking yourself a few
basic questions about harness will help guide your decision. Will you use
your harness everyday? Will it be used for work or show? Or for field,
woods or road work most of the time? Leather is heavier than biothane or
nylon, but it’s harder to keep clean and you’ll find leather is
rarely desired except for show or parade-type activities these days. Nylon
harness can be found in stylish colors, but is often termed
“disposable” as it rarely lasts more than few years. Nylon is
subject to degradation from sunshine, dirt and moisture, and will often
develop sharp edges and become worn after a few years unless impeccably
maintained. But, nylon does have the advantage of being available at entry
level prices for those owners on a budget. If you’d rather spend time
with your horse instead of cleaning leather, than biothane or
bioplastic-type harness is probably your best choice. These modern
materials have revolutionized harness for
the working horse. Its strength and ease of care, as well as its
adjustability, make it a growing favorite with today’s teamsters.
Whatever your choice of harness, one important fact is
making sure it fits your horse properly and comfortably. As with us trying
to work in clothes or boots that don’t fit well, our horse’s
ability to work efficiently is hampered by a harness that isn’t
comfortable or that doesn’t fit well. Some horses will complain and
fuss or fidget. They will be termed untrained, uncooperative or without
ethic, when in reality they are only asking for us to fit their harness
properly. Others will accept the ill-fitting gear without complaint, but
will end up with open wounds from friction burns or deep flesh cuts and
sores from improperly adjusted straps and buckles.
Buying a harness is sometimes like buying a car. Not
all harness comes with the same options and doing a little homework will
help ensure you purchase what you want and need. One option your new
harness might be missing is the crupper, which has a strap with a loop that
runs under the tail and works to keep the harness equally on the horse side
to side. Logging and plowing harness will need a crupper, but will rarely
include a breeching. Breeching works as the breaking and backing system for
your harness. Physics does not allow a log or plow to be
“backed,” and theoretically, when
the horse(s) stops, so does the log or plow. Asking a horse to back with a
plow ends up in the wreck of a lifetime, and asking a horse dragging a log
to back usually ends up in a good tangle of tugs, chains and log. Loggers
also tend to like harness without breeching for the sheer desire to have
less harness to catch on trees or branches. Purchasing a breeching-less
harness will cost considerably less than a complete harness, but
you’ll be limited on what you can do with it. Without a breeching a
horse can not be hooked into a cart, forecart, wagon or any piece of
equipment where backing needs to be an option. You will also not be able to
hook into a sleigh or sled as the breeching is needed to prevent glide-type
equipment from sliding into the horse when slowing and stopping.
If the goal for your draft and harness is all-around
service, then a complete harness with all the options will be your best
bet. “Two-drop breeching” is the most common for all-around
harness. This refers to the straps that come down around the hips and
connect to the breeching. Three-drop breeching, especially with
stainless-steel spots, will add more to the price of your harness and is
mostly reserved for more showy type harness and use with cart, wagon or
professional pulling horses. Spotted harness is rarely used or advised for
work or logging as the spots are easily damaged by stress from the woods
and equipment. In addition, complete all-around harness will include a set
of shaft loops and holdbacks for hooking your draft into a single cart.
Other options your harness may or may not include are
bridle checks. These are designed as side or over checks and work to keep
the horse from lowering its head out of working range. Lots of horses are
always looking for a snack while working, or will want to rub or fidget
with their bridles. Over or side checks work to keep the horse from
catching its bridle on equipment or the other horses bridle. When used and
adjusted properly they also function to help teach the horse to understand
contact with the bit. Once a draft is well-trained, settled and accepting
of their harness and jobs, checks can often be removed. And, as with
breeching, checks are one more things for trees, branches and equipment to
snag and tangle on.
|If your working draft is anxious or resistive,
check their teeth and your bitting and
driving style before assuming your horse's
attitude is the problem.
Blinders (or blinkers) are also options on some styles
of bridles. Many horses learn to work well without blinders, but many
experienced teamsters feel these are safety devices and serve to provide
protection for the horse’s eyes, especially while logging.
Two other items where fit and style are important are
with bits and collars. If your horse does not arrive at your farm
experienced and with a harness that fits, deciding these two factors will
be paramount for ensuring optimal performance from your draft. Bits come in
two types, leverage or snaffle, and within these two types are a variety of
styles. If your draft seems restless in his mouth it may be his teeth or
bit are bothering him, your hands are too harsh on the lines or any
combination of the three. A lack of training or ethics might also be the
issue, but it’s the wise teamster that looks to himself or his
horse’s gear as the problem before looking to the horse.
Ensuring collar fit will also take some attention,
especially when starting a young horse or muscling-up your draft for work.
Improperly fit collars will chafe the skin from rocking side to side if
they are too large or too wide, or will pinch the crest or windpipe if too
small or narrow. Modern “no sore” pads that do not allow heat
and moisture to build up next to the skin will often alleviate friction
type sores, but no pad will accommodate an improperly fit collar on a
working horse. If your draft does get collar sores, one proven remedy, in addition to modifying the collar for proper fit and use is daily applications of zinc
oxide, and time off until the horse heals. If your draft has most of a
season off, begin with routine and progressive workouts in properly fitting
gear at the start of the current season. This will ensure the skin and
muscles will properly harden and accommodate hours of work later in the
In addition to time spent learning about your draft
and its care, an equal amount of time needs to be dedicated to learning
about harness and equipment. A wealth of basic knowledge can also be found
online, as well as in volumes of book, magazines and writings. One of the
best ways to learn about drafts and harness is to spend time with those who
successfully work their horses. As with many things, there is no substitute
for hands-on experience and conversations with knowledgeable horse folks.
Horse Progress Days
Information provided by Dale K. Stoltzfus
The 2009 Horse Progress Days will be held July 3-4 in Oden, Ind. This will be the 16th consecutive event in as many years. Guests to the event come from many places throughout North America and around the world. The 2008 event included guests from 15 different countries, two from as far away as Kenya and Australia. The 2009 event expects guests from many countries in Western Europe as well as the African countries of Uganda and Mali.
Also an important part of the event are the many vendors selling all things draft horse related and many valuable seminars providing education about working with the horses and equipment.
To receive a program guide with more information about the event and interesting articles about horse farming, send $5 to 1006 Log Cabin Road, Leola, PA 17540. You can also visit the Web site at www.horseprogressdays.com.
Vicki Schmidt owns and operates Troika Drafts, in
Hebron, Maine. The all-breed draft facility features The Shoeing Shop and
the farrier services of Frank Walker.